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"Almost all programs in business require students to take a course in something called information systems. But what exactly does that term mean? Let’s take a look at some of the more popular definitions. Formal information systems rely on procedures (established and accepted by organizational practice) for collecting, storing, manipulating, and accessing data in order to obtain information. Formal systems do not have to be computerized, but today they usually are. Informal information systems also exist within an organization (interpersonal networking, water cooler gossip, etc.)"