"In this chapter, we will describe the system approach to problem solving, explain the steps of the systems development life cycle, point out the need for successful project management, change management and risk management, and compare different development approaches organizations can apply."
Information Systems are computer based infrastructures, organizations, people and components that pull together, process, store, transmit, present, disseminate and act on information. Use of information systems in many organizations has increased across all industries. Information systems have evolved over the years to match up with changes in organizational challenges from being simply operational tools to being used for strategic purposes. Governments are also embracing information systems by using them to deliver quality services and give access to important information. However, despite usage of information systems, their implementation faces many challenges which vary from context to context. These challenges have contributed to high failure rate in development and implementation of information systems.
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The systems development life cycle (SDLC), also referred to as the application development life-cycle, is a term used in systems engineering, information systems and software engineering to describe a process for planning, creating, testing, and deploying an information system.[1] The systems development life-cycle concept applies to a range of hardware and software configurations, as a system can be composed of hardware only, software only, or a combination of both.
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The systems development life cycle (SDLC) is a conceptual model used in project management that describes the stages involved in an information system development project, from an initial feasibility study through maintenance of the completed application. This is the first phase in the systems development process. It identifies whether or not there is the need for a new system to achieve a business"s strategic objectives. This is a preliminary plan (or a feasibility study) for a company"s business initiative to acquire the resources to build on an infrastructure to modify or improve a service. The company might be trying to meet or exceed expectations for their employees, customers and stakeholders too. The purpose of this step is to find out the scope of the problem and determine solutions. Resources, costs, time, benefits and other items should be considered at this stage.
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The second phase is where businesses will work on the source of their problem or the need for a change. In the event of a problem, possible solutions are submitted and analyzed to identify the best fit for the ultimate goal(s) of the project. This is where teams consider the functional requirements of the project or solution. It is also where system analysis takes place—or analyzing the needs of the end users to ensure the new system can meet their expectations. Systems analysis is vital in determining what a business"s needs are, as well as how they can be met, who will be responsible for individual pieces of the project, and what sort of timeline should be expected
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Requirements elicitation is the first of the four steps in software requirements engineering (the others being analysis, specification, and validation). Software engineers use several elicitation techniques. To facilitate teaching these techniques, materials are provided to support an introductory lecture and four lectures on specific techniques: joint application design, brainstorming, interviewing, and the PIECES framework. A role-playing exercise is provided that allows students to experience each of the techniques. Information for instructors includes educational objectives, pedagogical considerations, additional exercises, and a bibliography
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Structured Analysis is a development method that allows the analyst to understand the system and its activities in a logical way. It is a systematic approach, which uses graphical tools that analyze and refine the objectives of an existing system and develop a new system specification which can be easily understandable by user.
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Object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) is a popular technical approach for analyzing, designing an application, system, or business by applying the object-oriented paradigm and visual modeling throughout the development life cycles to foster better stakeholder communication and product quality. According to the popular guide Unified Process, OOAD in modern software engineering is best conducted in an iterative and incremental way. Iteration by iteration, the outputs of OOAD activities, analysis models for OOA and design models for OOD respectively, will be refined and evolve continuously driven by key factors like risks and business value.
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The process of analyzing existing systems and system needs, of designing and selecting the system to meet those needs, and of the implementation and ultimate evaluation of those systems brings the work of deployment of IT full cycle. Selecting software tools is not an easy task. Whether opting to hire external consultants, go it alone, or just rely on salespeople, the level of complexity remains the same. In the long run, obtaining external assistance may prove to be a cost-saving measure. There are a number of potential pitfalls to be avoided in the evaluation and selection part of the process. Perhaps the greatest pitfall to avoid is purchasing software that has an initial lower cost but eventually higher maintenance or service and support costs. The true cost of a solution will include implementation and training. Also note that over time, upgrades can contribute significant additional expense to the total investment cost.
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Conceptual design in itself is not the end of the design process, rather it serves as a basis for the detailed MIS design. The performance requirements specified by the conceptual design become inputs to the detailed design phase, in which these are further refined, detailed and finalized to be called the system specifications. Thus, the main objective of the detailed system design is to prepare a blueprint of a system that meets the goals of the conceptual system design requirements. Detailed system design involves the following phases. The System Design Document describes the system requirements, operating environment, system and subsystem architecture, files and database design, input formats, output layouts, human-machine interfaces, detailed design, processing logic, and external interfaces.
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Stipulate methods and deadlines for submission or completion of assessment tasks and penalties for late submission/completion including the deadline for absolute fail (i.e. after which the task will not be assessed); and Provide information on the process for requesting and approving extensions for submission or completion of assessment tasks. Traditional approaches to project management have tended to focus on 'command and control' methods where a detailed, complex and fixed plan is created at the outset of the project. These methods do not suit software development projects where there is a need for rapid iterative planning and development cycles.
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