"A computer network or data network is a telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources. In computer networks, networked computing devices exchange data with each other using a data link. The connections between nodes are established using either cable media or wireless media. This course is comprised of 13 lessons covering computer networks. Each lesson includes a combination of Wikipedia readings, YouTube videos, and hands-on learning activities."
A basic understanding of networking is important for anyone managing a server. Not only is it essential for getting your services online and running smoothly, it also gives you the insight to diagnose problems. This document will provide a basic overview of some common networking concepts. We will discuss basic terminology, common protocols, and the responsibilities and characteristics of the different layers of networking.
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Internet Protocol (IP) version 4 (IPv4) is the current standard “IP” protocol used with TCP/IP — Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol — which is the protocol for Internet addressing. Like the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model, TCP/IP has its own model. The OSI model and the TCP/IP models were both created independently. The TCP/IP network model represents reality in the world, whereas the OSI mode represents an ideal. With that said, the TCP/IP network model matches the standard layered network model as it should. The following figure shows the relationship between the OSI model and the TCP/IP model.
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Data link layer is most reliable node to node delivery of data. It forms frames from the packets that are received from network layer and gives it to physical layer. It also synchronizes the information which is to be transmitted over the data. Error controlling is easily done. The encoded data are then passed to physical. Error detection bits are used by the data link layer. It also corrects the errors. Outgoing messages are assembled into frames. Then the system waits for the acknowledgements to be received after the transmission. It is reliable to send message
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Wide-area networks (WAN) connect networks, users, and services across broad geographic areas. Companies use WAN to connect company sites for information exchange. This tutorial explains basic concepts of WAN such WAN connection types, differences between Asynchronous and Synchronous serial connection, WAN protocols and encapsulation methods.
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This is a very brief introduction to IP networking. For more in-depth information, there are a number of excellent references. In particular, Douglas Comer's Internetworking with TCP/IP (Prentice Hall) is one of the standard references and provides a wealth of information on the subject. If a device wants to communicate using TCP/IP, it needs an IP address. When the device has an IP address and the appropriate software and hardware, it can send and receive IP packets. Any device that can send and receive IP packets is called an IP host
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UDP protocol consists of fewer fields compared to TCP. The reason for that is because certain data types do not require reliable delivery and extra overhead. Real-time traffic for example, needs to be transported in an efficient way without error correction and retransmission mechanisms. UDP is considered to be a connectionless protocol. It leaves reliability to be handled by the application layer. All it cares about is fast transmission
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This document contains Cisco IOS commands that are supported in many different software releases and on many different platforms. Some of the commands that are included in this document may not be supported in your Cisco IOS software release. This chapter provides helpful tips for understanding and configuring Cisco IOS software using the command-line interface (CLI)
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The VLANs can communicate with each other via the trunking connection between the two switches using the router. For example, data from a computer on VLAN A that needs to get to a computer on VLAN B (or VLAN C or VLAN D) must travel from the switch to the router and back again to the switch. Because of the transparent bridging algorithm and trunking, both PCs and the router think that they are on the same physical segment! VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) is a Cisco proprietary protocol that propagates the definition of Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN) on the whole local area network.To do this, VTP carries VLAN information to all the switches in a VTP domain. VTP advertisements can be sent over 802.1Q, and ISL trunks.
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This lesson describes both physical and logical organization of networks. Topologies described include bus, ring, star, and hybrid. This unit also covers TIA/EIA 568 structured cabling standards, which govern the installation of local area networks. In order to design, install, troubleshoot, and maintain networks, administrators must have a solid understanding of these topologies and cabling standards. Each computer on the network is connected to the other computers with cable (or some other medium, such as wireless using radio frequency signals). The physical arrangement of the cables connecting computers on a network is called thenetwork topology.
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This document provides basic information needed in order to configure your router for routing IP, such as how addresses are broken down and how subnetting works. You learn how to assign each interface on the router an IP address with a unique subnet. There are examples included in order to help tie everything together. An IP address is an address used in order to uniquely identify a device on an IP network. The address is made up of 32 binary bits, which can be divisible into a network portion and host portion with the help of a subnet mask. Subnetting allows you to create multiple logical networks that exist within a single Class A, B, or C network. If you do not subnet, you are only able to use one network from your Class A, B, or C network, which is unrealistic.
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Routers have various memory locations where configuration command files are stored (temporarily or permanently), and where the router’s operating system (IOS) is located. This memory is of two types- volatile and non-volatile (volatile means the information is lost when the router is turned off or rebooted). This chapter discusses basic router configuration, including how to configure the router for the first time, configuring from the command-line interface ( CLI), loading and saving configuration files, and working with the filesystems
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A routing protocol specifies how routers communicate with each other, disseminating information that enables them to select routes between any two nodes on a computer network. Routing algorithms determine the specific choice of route. Each router has a priori knowledge only of networks attached to it directly. A routing protocol shares this information first among immediate neighbors, and then throughout the network. This way, routers gain knowledge of the topology of the network. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) is a forceful protocol type used in local area network and wide area network. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) type is categorized interior gateway protocol within the use of distance vector algorithm
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A computer network that spans a relatively large geographical area. Typically, a WAN consists of two or more local-area networks (LANs). Computers connected to a wide-area network are often connected through public networks, such as the telephone system. They can also be connected through leased lines or satellites. A computer network that spans a relatively large geographical area. Typically, a WAN consists of two or more local-area networks (LANs).
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